3 the quality of being a competitive disadvantage [syn: unfavorable position]
An inferiority complex, in the fields of psychology and psychoanalysis, is a feeling that one is inferior to others in some way. Such feelings can arise from an imagined or actual inferiority in the afflicted person. It is often subconscious, and is thought to drive afflicted individuals to overcompensate, resulting either in spectacular achievement or extreme antisocial behavior, or both. Unlike a normal feeling of inferiority, which can act as an incentive for achievement, an inferiority complex is an advanced state of discouragement, often resulting in a retreat from difficulties.
Early work in this field was pioneered by Alfred Adler, who used the example of Napoleon complexes to illustrate his theory. Some sociologists have proposed that an inferiority complex can also exist at a wider level, affecting entire cultures. This theory, which is controversial, is known as cultural cringe.
Classical Adlerian psychology makes a distinction between primary and secondary inferiority feelings. A primary inferiority feeling is said to be rooted in the young child's original experience of weakness, helplessness and dependency. It can then be intensified by comparisons to older siblings and adults. A secondary inferiority feeling relates to an adult's experience of being unable to reach an unconscious, fictional final goal of subjective security and success to compensate for the inferiority feelings. The perceived distance from that goal would lead to a "minus" feeling that could then prompt the recall of the original inferiority feeling; this composite of inferiority feelings could be experienced as overwhelming. The goal invented to relieve the original, primary feeling of inferiority which actually causes the secondary feeling of inferiority is the "catch-22" of this dilemma. This vicious circle is common in neurotic lifestyles.
- Parental attitudes and upbringing - disapproving negative remarks and evaluations of behavior emphasizing mistakes and shortcomings determine the attitude of the child before the age of six.
- Physical defects - such as disproportional facial features, speech defects and defective vision cause inferiority complexes.
- Mental limitations - brings feelings of inferiority when unfavorable comparisons are made with the superior achievements of others, and when satisfactory performance is expected.
- Social disadvantages - family, race, sex, sexual orientation or economic status
ManifestationThis feeling may be manifested in withdrawal from social contacts or excessive seeking for attention, criticism of others, overly dutiful obedience, and worry.
inferiority in German: Minderwertigkeitskomplex
inferiority in Estonian: Alaväärsuskompleks
inferiority in French: Sentiment d'infériorité
inferiority in Indonesian: Rendah diri
inferiority in Hebrew: תסביך נחיתות
inferiority in Lithuanian: Nevisavertiškumo kompleksas
inferiority in Dutch: Minderwaardigheidscomplex
inferiority in Japanese: 劣等感
inferiority in Polish: Kompleks niższości
inferiority in Portuguese: Complexo de inferioridade
inferiority in Russian: Комплекс неполноценности
inferiority in Slovak: Komplex menejcennosti
inferiority in Serbian: Комплекс мање вредности
inferiority in Finnish: Alemmuuskompleksi
inferiority in Swedish: Mindervärdeskomplex
inferiority in Turkish: Aşağılık kompleksi
inferiority in Urdu: احساس کمتری
aberrance, aberrancy, aberration, abnormality, abnormity, amorphism, anomalism, anomalousness, anomaly, arrear, arrearage, arrears, badness, baseness, coarseness, commonness, damnability, decline, defalcation, default, defectiveness, deficiency, deficit, delinquency, derangement, deviation, difference, disability, disablement, disqualification, divergence, eccentricity, erraticism, evilness, failure, falling short, fourth-rateness, heteromorphism, humbleness, imbecility, immateriality, imperfection, improperness, inability, inaccuracy, inadequacy, inauspiciousness, incapability, incapacitation, incapacity, incompetence, incompetency, inconsequence, inconsequentiality, inconsiderableness, indifference, ineffectuality, inefficiency, ineptitude, inexpedience, infancy, inferiorness, insignificance, insufficiency, invalidity, irregularity, irrelevance, juniority, legal incapacity, littleness, low priority, lower status, lowliness, malevolence, marginality, meanness, mediocrity, minority, monstrosity, moral badness, negligibility, peccancy, pettiness, picayune, picayunishness, pokiness, poorness, puniness, reprehensibility, satellite status, second-rateness, secondariness, service, servitorship, shoddiness, short measure, shortage, shortcoming, shortfall, slightness, slump, smallness, subjecthood, subnormality, subordinacy, subordinate role, subordination, subservience, subserviency, superiority, teratism, third-rateness, underage, unfavorableness, unfitness, unhealthiness, unimportance, unimpressiveness, unkindness, unnaturalism, unnaturalness, unnoteworthiness, unpleasantness, unskillfulness, viciousness, wardship, wickedness, worthlessness